Updated: Jul 19, 2021
Decaying waste materials in public and private sewer and septic systems generate sewer gases. Methane is the major single component of sewer gas that includes a mixture of non-toxic and toxic gases, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Inappropriately disposed flammable liquids and gasoline could also contribute to sewer gases.
Sewer gases can cause many health hazards to the building occupants. Hydrogen sulfide is a volatile and very lethal gas that can damage several various systems in the body at once, most particularly the nervous system. So intoxicating that hydrogen sulfide can be smelled at 0.47 parts per billion by half of human adults, the gas will start to cause eye soreness at 10 parts per million (ppm) and eye injury at 50 ppm. It can also cause other low-level symptoms like drowsiness, headache, nausea, dizziness and nervousness. High concentration exposures can induce pulmonary edema, and still higher levels (at 800-1,000 ppm) will cause almost abrupt loss of consciousness and death;
Hydrogen sulfide is accountable for sewer gas’s distinguishing rotten-egg smell that which can be domineering even at very small concentrations. However, the gas’s odour is a safeguard as it warns building dwellers to the leak way before they are in any severe hazard. It is essential to be reminded that at approximately 100 ppm, the olfactory nerve becomes incapacitated, eliminating the victim’s sense of smell and, consequently, their responsiveness of the peril. Ammonia also emits another "warning smell", which will scorch the nostrils and gradually annoy the respiratory tract and mucous membranes. Ammonia, unlike hydrogen sulfide, is very irritating that building dwellers are likely to evacuate before its concentration increases to toxic levels.
Aside from hydrogen sulfide, methane is also another explosive component of sewer gas. Vapours from inappropriately disposed fuel products can further amplify the risk of explosion or fire. When sewer gases disperse into household air, they slowly displace oxygen and suffocate dwellers. The effects of deficiency of oxygen consist of unconsciousness, dizziness, nausea and headache. At extremely low oxygen concentrations, or less than 12%, unconsciousness and death will take place rapidly and without forewarning. Oxygen will be at its lowest concentrations in the basement and crawlspace, which are where heavy sewer gases and methane, are likely to accumulate.
Immediately contact a qualified plumber if you suspect that any odours might be caused by sewer gases. The design of the plumbing system depends on a connection between the sewer system and household fixtures. This is the primary reason why a huge amount of effort is spent to make sure that waste products and resultant gases flow in one direction.
Many failures in the plumbing system may permit sewer gases to flow back into a home. Plumbing vents should not be installed too close to windows and air intakes in homes equipped with HVAC air handlers that draw in outside air for ventilation. Air and wind surge around the building can let sewer gases to enter the home interior even where air intakes and plumbing vents are properly located. Homeowners can alter the height of vents and install vent pipe filters to lessen the problem.
Sewer gases can also diffuse through cracks in a building’s foundation when the leach field septic system leaks. Vent pipe cracks are more difficult to diagnose than cracks in the drain line, which is typically accompanied by visible water leaks. Vent pipe cracks can allow a significant amount of sewer gases to enter the home. Plumbers can find these cracks by using a special device that emits artificial smoke and propels it into the plumbing drain system. The smoke pressurizes the drain and vent systems and egresses through cracks and loose fittings;
In most cases, obtrusive sewer gases are produced by a loss of the water barricade where traps have vanished dry. More particularly in dry weather, infrequent use of a floor drain, water closet, or shower can allow for fast evaporation and admission of sewer gases into the living spaces. The locations in which floor drains are most likely to dry out are near furnaces and water heaters or furnaces, in mechanical rooms, in workshop areas and in janitor’s closets. Homeowners can keep the water barricade by pouring water down the drains and using the fixtures regularly. Automatic drain-trap primers can also be installed to periodically deliver small quantities of water to the traps.
Republished from: “Sewer Gases in the Home”, Green Building, Pilipino Express.